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What are the health consequences of obesity?

Living with obesity can have substantial effects on all aspects of health and well-being.

These can be classified as effects on Mental, Mechanical, Metabolic and Monetary (social) health (the 4Ms of Obesity.)

Negative consequences of obesity on Mental Health can include:

  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Negative self-esteem
  • Negative self-talk
  • Body dissatisfaction
  • Disordered eating/eating disorders

Negative consequences of obesity on Mechanical Health can include:

  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (heartburn)
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Plantar fasciitis
  • Urinary/fecal incontinence
  • Intertrigo (skin-fold infections)

Negative consequences of obesity on Metabolic Health can include:

  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Elevated cholesterol
  • Gout
  • Fatty liver disease
  • Infertility
  • Cancer

Negative consequences of obesity on Monetary Health can include:

  • Education
  • Employment
  • Professional development
  • Increased cost of living (e.g., clothing, mobility aids)
  • Cost of weight-loss programs

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